1Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)
The strain of coronavirus that causes the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Named SARS-CoV-2 because of its similarity to the SARS coronavirus that emerged in 2002.
An abbreviation of coronavirus disease 2019, a new strain of coronavirus discovered in 2019. It refers to the disease caused by the novel coronavirus. By the end of 2019, an infection that had started in Wuhan, China had spread across the world. Those infected with the novel coronavirus develop symptoms including fever, cough, and shortness of breath. When the infection spreads to the lungs, it causes pneumonia, which can lead to respiratory compromise.
Just as there are different types of red blood cells such as A, B, AB, and O, there are different types of cells all throughout the body, including white blood cells. These types are called human leukocyte antigens (HLA). HLA types are highly diverse and vary significantly between individuals, but they play a key role in immune responsiveness to antigens. For this reason, it is known that each specific HLA type has different immune responsiveness to specific antigens.
A general term for proteins secreted by cells, which play a significant role in signaling between cells, especially in immunity and inflammation. Many studies have reported that infections caused by SARS-CoV-2 also cause abnormalities in immunity and inflammation.
Cultivated in the form of sheets using conventional cell culture technology. The term organoid refers to cultured cells grown as a three-dimensional structure using hydrogels as scaffolding and nutrients known as growth factors. From a single stem cell, it is possible to create a tissue-like structure in vivo and infinitely increase the number of healthy cells found in various tissues such as the respiratory tract and lungs.
6High-Resolution HLA Analysis
The HLA gene region is highly diverse, and its sequence differs among populations. In this research, we aim to perform detailed HLA analysis using a next-generation sequencer.
7SNP Array Analysis
A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, pronounced snip) is a single base-pair difference in the human genome and can make a difference in individuals’ susceptibility to illness. An SNP array is the comprehensive analysis of SNPs across a person’s entire genome.
8Whole-Genome Sequence Analysis
Analysis of the entire genomic DNA sequence. A large number of genes are examined simultaneously with a next-generation sequencer that can read large amounts of genomic data at high speeds.
A vaccine administered orally or nasally to mucous membranes, targeting mucosal surfaces such as the intestines and nasopharynx. Compared with injectable vaccines, which are currently more commonly used, mucosal vaccines induce both systemic and mucosal immune responses. They are expected to be used against pathogens that enter through mucosal surfaces such as the respiratory tract and digestive system. Their practicality is also expected to lead to increased use as a less invasive alternative to subcutaneous vaccines.